Juan Velasco Alvarado, a Peruvian army officer, is a revolutionary leader known for his ambitious policies and intense nationalism. He rose to power in 1968 after staging a coup d’état, overthrowing the country’s elected government and creating a new socialist regime. His leadership style is characterized by his Marxist ideology, the desire to modernize Peru, and the establishment of a strong central government. In this blog post, we will take a closer look at Velasco’s legacy and the changes he brought to Peru’s modern history.

Section 1: The Rise to Power

Juan Velasco Alvarado was born in 1910 in the Andean city of Piura, Peru. He began his military career as a young man, attending the Chorrillos Military School in Lima. He rose through the ranks of the army, gaining a reputation as a skilled and disciplined officer. In 1968, he led a group of soldiers in a peaceful coup against President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, who was seen as corrupt and ineffective. Velasco dissolved the Peruvian Congress and formed a new government, the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces (GRFA). He became the President of the GRFA and the de facto leader of the country.

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Section 2: The Socialist Regime

Velasco’s government was based on socialist principles, with a focus on state ownership of the means of production, land reform, and social welfare programs for the poor. His goal was to reduce the gap between the rich and poor, to modernize the country, and to end the exploitation of the indigenous communities. He nationalized many of the foreign companies operating in the country, particularly in the mining, oil, and banking sectors. The government invested heavily in infrastructure, building new roads, schools, hospitals, and housing projects. This policy reduced the poverty rate from 60% to 50%, contributing to the welfare of the people.

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Section 3: Land Reform

One of Velasco’s most significant achievements was the implementation of land reform. The government expropriated large estates from wealthy landowners and distributed the land to peasants and indigenous communities. This policy aimed to give land to the landless and increase agricultural productivity. It also provided access to credit and technical assistance to small farmers, enabling them to improve their crops and harvests. This resulted in increased food production, reduced rural poverty, and the promotion of social justice.

Section 4: Education

Velasco’s government was also committed to improving the education system, especially for those who were previously excluded from the education system. He created a new education law that provided free and mandatory primary education to all children. The government also built new schools and universities, provided scholarships for those who couldn’t afford it, and promoted bilingual education to preserve indigenous cultures. This ensured access to education for all, promoting social advancement and equality.

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Section5: Indigenous Rights

Velasco’s government recognized that the indigenous communities had suffered from centuries of discrimination and exploitation. He sought to promote their cultural identity and improve their living conditions. The government launched a massive program of land reform to provide land to the indigenous communities, increased access to education and healthcare, and promoted their participation in decision-making processes. Also, the government ensured that indigenous languages were taught in schools, the communities’ traditions respected, and that the people received cultural recognition and pride.

Section 6: Economic Challenges

Velasco’s policies were not without controversy and economic challenges. The country faced high inflation, and the policies often hurt the economy. His reforms affected foreign investments, leading to a negative impact on the investments’ country. The country’s businesses diminished, and poverty prevailed among the country’s citizens. However, Velasco was determined to carry out his plans, even if it meant making difficult choices and challenging the status quo.

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Section 7: Decline and Legacy

In 1975, Velasco was struck by a heart attack, which ultimately led him to resign from his position as President of Peru. His government was carried out by his successor, General Morales Bermúdez. Velasco’s regime had mixed results. Although he had carried out some excellent social policies, he also made some questionable economic decisions. His legacy continues to be debated in Peru, with some believing that he laid a foundation for a more equitable and socially just society. Others believe that his policies contributed to the country’s economic struggles in the years that followed.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

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Q1: Who was Juan Velasco Alvarado, and what did he do for Peru’s modern history?
Ans: Juan Velasco Alvarado was a Peruvian army officer who overthrew the elected government and created a new socialist regime in 1968. He was the President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces (GRFA) and made significant socio-economic policies promoting land reform, social welfare programs, education, and indigenous rights. His policies and leadership style impacted Peru’s modern history by reducing poverty rates, promoting social advancement, and boosting the country’s overall development.

Q2: What is land reform?

Ans: Land reform refers to the changes made in the land ownership system of a country. It can include the transfer of land from large landowners to small farmers and fixing land ownership limits to decrease land concentration. It is a policy that aims to promote the equitable distribution of land among the population.

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Q3: What was Velasco’s educational policy?

Ans: Velasco’s educational policy consisted of providing free and mandatory primary education to all children, building new schools and universities, providing scholarships, and promoting bilingual education to preserve indigenous cultures. He aimed to provide access to education for all of Peru’s citizens to promote social advancement and equality.

Q4: What is the significance of Velasco’s land reform policy?

Ans: Velasco’s land reform policy aimed to break the cycle of poverty among poor farmers and the indigenous communities. The policy involved expropriating large landed estates from wealthy landowners and distributing the land to farmers and indigenous communities. The policy increased agricultural productivity, reduced rural poverty, and promoted social justice.

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Q5: Did Velasco’s policies contribute to the country’s economic decline?

Ans: Velasco’s policies, particularly his nationalization and expropriation of private companies, led to a negative impact on the country’s economy. Foreign investments and small businesses went down, and the country faced high inflation. However, Velasco was determined to carry out his policies, even if it meant making difficult decisions and challenging the status quo of the prevailing economic paradigm.

Q6: What is Velasco’s legacy in Peru?

Ans: Velasco’s legacy continues to be debated in Peru. Some believe that he laid the groundwork for a more equitable and socially just society. Others argue that his policies contributed to the country’s economic struggles in the years that followed. However, it cannot be denied that he made significant contributions to the country’s social policies, improving the lives of Peru’s marginalized populations.

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Q7: How did Velasco’s policies impact indigenous communities?

Ans: Velasco’s policies aimed to improve the ecological and social rights of indigenous communities. His government launched a massive program of land reform to provide the land to indigenous communities, increased access to education and healthcare, promoted the protection of the people’s traditions and cultures, and promoted indigenous participation in decision-making processes. Velasco aimed to make indigenous communities more integrated into the mainstream of society while promoting the cultural identity and traditions.


Juan Velasco Alvarado’s legacy is a mixed bag of success and controversy. His government carried out crucial social policies, including land reform, social welfare programs, and education. Although his policies were criticized, they were implemented with the intent of promoting social justice. Velasco’s commitment to Peru’s marginalized communities and his ambition to modernize the country and reduce poverty rates made him a revolutionary leader in Peruvian history. His legacy continues to inspire young people to strive for social changes rooted in equality, justice, and equity.

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